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Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/2451/31441

Title: Risk and Reciprocity Over the Mobile Phone Network: Evidence from Rwanda
Authors: Blumenstock, Joshua
Eagle, Nathan
Fafchamps, Marcel
Keywords: Risk Sharing; Mobile Phones; Mobile Money; Information and communications technologies; Development; Earthquakes; Rwanda; Africa.
Issue Date: 17-Jan-2012
Series/Report no.: Working Papers;11_25
Abstract: A large literature describes how local risk sharing networks can help individuals smooth consumption in the face of idiosyncratic economic shocks. However, when an entire community faces a large covariate shock, and when the transaction costs of transfers are high, these risk sharing networks are likely to be less effective. In this paper, we document how a new technology – mobile phones – reduces transaction costs and enables Rwandans to share risk quickly over long distances. We examine a comprehensive database of person-to-person transfers of mobile airtime and find that individuals send this rudimentary form of “mobile money” to friends and family affected by natural disasters. Using the Lake Kivu earthquake of 2008 to identify the effect of a large covariate shock on interpersonal transfers, we estimate that a current-day earthquake would result in the transfer of between $22,000 and $30,000 to individuals living near the epicenter. We further show that the pattern of transfers is most consistent with a model of reciprocal risk sharing, where transfers are determined by past reciprocity and geographical proximity, rather than one of pure charity or altruism, in which transfers would be expected to be increasing in the wealth of the sender and decreasing in the wealth of the recipient.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/2451/31441
Appears in Collections:NET Institute Working Papers Series

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